Three Case-Studies by the Italian Team
First-case-study: the choice of the criteria for awarding performance-related pay elements (PPEs) at company level is crucial in the fight against the GPG. As a matter of fact, if workers’ performance is measured and performance-related pay elements are awarded on the basis of work attendance, this can have relevant gender bias and eventually result into a widening of the GPG. Due to a persistent uneven distribution of family and caring burdens, women are less than men available to work long hours or are more than men absent from work due the exercise of maternity/parental leaves. This first Italian case-study aims at analysing the main practices negotiated by the social partners at company level with regard to the awarding of Performance-related Pay Elements, by focusing on the Company Agreements filed at the Territotial Labour Directorate of Verona in 2014. The study examines how often work attendance is used as the sole criterion or one of the criteria for such awarding, and - if so – what corrective provisions on the measurement of work attendance are set in order to prevent gender bias. In the reconstruction of these data, the analysis highlights questions of legal certainty, questions on the validity of certain clauses, as well as relevant political issues.
Second and Third Case-studies: these two case-studies focuses on two Italian companies, chosen for their specific attention to work-life-balance arrangements and the fight against gender discrimination, as well as for the fact that despite belonging to two different industry sectors, their company agreements provided a distribution of productivity bonuses that were not based on the criteria of work attendance or at least it was to a little extent. The legal, economic and sociological analysis highlighted gender issues and gender pay gaps by analysing the company agreements and their actual impact on wages.